One thing that is super important for us when we build a dream house is which stone is used in construction. The right stone can make or break our house. As many stones are available, selecting the best stone can be cumbersome.
Don’t stress about the variety because we will classify the stones into two common categories in this article. Once that, selecting the best suitable for our building will be easier. Let’s begin!
Two Common Ways to Classify the Stones
There are two common ways to classify the stones used in constructing buildings:
- Classification by material
- Classification by color
Classification by Material
Multiple natural stones are used for construction and decorative purposes. The stone materials should be durable, strong, and tensile to make a solid building.
Every material has its properties, pros, cons, durability, and uses.
Granite is an abundant and commonly used stone in constructing buildings. It is available in various colors ranging from grey to pink.
It has a high compressive strength of 100 to 250MPa which means it can resist any load. Also, it is durable and not affected by natural factors like rain, winds, and heat.
Polished granite is used for exterior wall cladding, tabletops, open kitchens, and cabinets. Additionally, it is used for civil engineering projects like dams, bridge piers, ballast for railways, and curbs.
It is less porous, water resistant, and bacteria resistant.
Marble is a metamorphic rock formed under high pressure and high heat. The color and texture are rich. Marble is found in different colors including white, black, red, brown, beige, green, off-white, Etc. It’s the best choice as decoration in the interior walling and flooring, which will make it vivid and luxurious.
Marble has a compressive strength of 70 to 75MPa. It is suitable for ornamental works in columns, wall cladding, flooring, staircase, and countertops.
It is fire-resistant and perfect for harsh weather and humidity. Furthermore, it is easy to carve and long-lasting, and marble is the main material of Many Sculptures, Molding, and Waterjet Medallion.
Travertine is strong yet porous stone with pitted holes and troughs. It has a concentric texture that can be polished to a smooth, shiny surface. It is widely used in construction and has multiple colors.
It has a compressive strength of 80 to 120MPa. Hence it is appropriate for garden paths, artwork, patios, paving, tabletops, and courtyards.
Travertine is a lightweight stone with great durability and easy maintenance. But it has a porous surface.
Onyx is a sedimentary rock with heavy veining, variable design, and a wide color spectrum. It is a softer stone, mostly used in ornamental and decorative work. Its translucent surface looks gorgeous when combined with lighting.
It is also used in sculptures, wall panels, and novelty items. It is a rare stone but easily scratched and difficult to use for larger buildings with a compressive strength of 97MPa.
Applying high pressure and high heat on sandstone results in Quartzite. It is a very hard stone with compressive strength of 115MPa, which makes it hard to work with. It is found in multiple colors, like grey, red, and brown.
Its high resistance makes it a perfect fit for kitchen use. Because of its strength, it is also used in railways.
It is a dense, hard, and less porous material.
It is easy to maintain, less abrasive, and highly resistant to acidic liquids.
Basalt is an igneous rock formed from the quick cooling of magma. Its structure is fine-grained, and colors vary from grey to black.
It is highly non-porous and strong with a compressive strength of 150 to 190MPa. It is harder than iron or platinum, used in dams, river walls, road construction, and concrete production.
Due to its hardness, it is not easy to shape basalt. However, it is durable and resistant to moisture and water.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock with almost 80% calcite and dolomite. It has a fine-grained acid-sensitive surface. It is very popular in architectural projects. Changing the composition of limestone changes its strength.
It is used for flooring, roofing, and walls, especially for the exterior of villas and castles. It is a relatively soft stone with medium durability and becomes dirty relatively.
Sandstone contains minerals, including silica, quartz, feldspar, and others. It has a compressive strength of 65MPa. Depending upon which minerals are included in sandstone, its strength changes.
It is an adaptable stone, which makes it a highly desirable material. It is used in roofing, facing walls, dams, and bridge piers. It is mixed with silica cement when used in heavy projects. However, it weathers quicker than others.
Slate is composed of mica, quartz, and clay minerals. It has a fine-grained structure with multiple colors and a brittle surface.
It is used as pavements, roofing tiles, and slabs. Its compressive strength is 100 to 200MPa. It is water-resistant, stain-resistant, and scratch-resistant. It is easy to cut into smaller slabs but cold to the touch.
Alabaster is a rare and highly translucent stone. It has a fine-grained surface. Because of its translucency, it is not widely used in construction. Small decorative items are manufactured from alabaster, not the entire building.
It is mostly used in statuary and ornamental work. Using it indoors and avoiding the rain and high heat exposure is better. If installed outdoors, it should be protected. The scope for its application increases when it is combined with other materials.
Classification by Color
Stones are also classified based on color. It is very helpful when selecting the color palette for your place. Different materials are available in different colors. Some of the available colors in stones are:
Carrara White: Carrara is an Italian marble synonymous with luxury and sophistication. It has subtle grey veins and a texture resembling a cloudy sky. It is widely used as a kitchen workstation and floor.
Sivec: Sivec marble is quarried from Macedonia. Its pure white background and homogenous grey veins give a trendy look. It is good for mosaics, interior and exterior walls, tabletops, and flooring.
Marmara White: Marmara is a Turkish marble with a beautiful linear gray veins pattern on a white background. Its exotic design makes it a perfect option for floors, countertops, furniture, and walls.
Nero Marquina: Nero Marquina is an economic black marble with a distinctive white veining pattern. It is extracted from the region of south China. This marble makes the tabletops, wall panels, and floors look unique.
Black Galaxy: The black galaxy is granite material extracted from South India. It has small white and gold flecks, making it look like a galaxy. It is hard and durable, mostly used on kitchen counters, vanities, and walls. Also used in commercial projects.
Port Laurent: This marble comes from the quarries of Morocco with a brown-to-black background and thick golden veins. It is suitable for fountains, mosaics, pools, walls, flooring, and countertops.
Moca Cream: Moca cream is a limestone quarried in Portugal. It has parallel veins and steady beige background. Its main application is on exterior walls, swimming pools, decoration, and masonry.
Crema Marfil: It is a cream color marble from Spain. It has thin veins with a tan undertone. It is used in flooring, wall capping, fountains, pools, windows, and stairs.
Galala Beige: It is an Egyptian marble with irregular veining. It is a hard-wearing marble and easy to clean. Mostly used in bathrooms, fireplaces, entryways, and kitchens.
Dark Emperador: It is a Spanish marble with dark brownish background and white veins and crystals. Its alluring design makes it suitable for wall cladding, flooring, mosaics, countertops, and showers.
Green Emperador: This marble is quarried from Iran with dark green background and white and brown veins. It is highly durable and can be used indoors and outdoors. It is used for ornamental works, countertops, and tabletops.
Emerald Green: Emerald green marble is sourced from India. It looks luxurious with dark green background and white veining texture. It is used in flooring, wall panels, vanity sinks, and kitchen countertops.
Hermes Grey: This marble is extracted from Turkey. It has a dark grey background with a network of light color veins. We can use it as wall panels, floors, kitchen counters, and display trays.
Cloudy Grey: It is a semi-white marble quarried in Turkey. It has a grey texture that resembles a cloud, as the name suggests. It is highly applicable to flooring and walls.
Pink Onyx: It is a gorgeous marble that catches the eye instantly. It is quarried from Iran. It has low abrasion resistance. Hence, needs high maintenance. It is perfect for luxurious spaces and indoor paving.
Rojo Alicante: It is red in color with cream veining providing an elegant look. It looks amazing on countertops, walls, and floors. This marble is quarried in Spain.
Kashmir Gold: This outstanding marble originated in India. It has a yellowish background with brown and grey veins and dots. It applies to kitchen countertops, backsplash, vanity sinks, and wall panels.
There are thousands of kinds of stone in the world, they are processed into various products, and applied to every corner of life, to enrich our lives. If you are interested to know more about them, please click here to check more information.
Sinodec Stone is one of the nature porters, as long as you can think of, we can produce it.